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2018年政府工作报告(8)

(二)加快建设创新型国家。把握世界新一轮科技革命和产业变革大势,深入实施创新驱动发展战略,不断增强经济创新力和竞争力。
2. Moving faster to make China a country of innovators
The latest global revolution in science and technology and industrial transformation are trends we must be on board with. We will do more in implementing the innovation-driven development strategy, and keep on making the Chinese economy more innovative and competitive.
加强国家创新体系建设。强化基础研究和应用基础研究,启动一批科技创新重大项目,高标准建设国家实验室。鼓励企业牵头实施重大科技项目,支持科研院所、高校与企业融通创新,加快创新成果转化应用。国家科技投入要向民生领域倾斜,加强雾霾治理、癌症等重大疾病防治攻关,使科技更好造福人民。
We will improve national innovation systems. We will strengthen basic research and application-oriented basic research, launch a number of major science and technology innovation programs, and build top-quality national laboratories. We will encourage enterprises to head up major science and technology programs, support collaborative innovation by research institutes, universities, and enterprises, and speed up the commercialization and application of innovations. State investments in science and technology will be weighted toward fields related to improving living standards. We will strengthen efforts to reduce smog and prevent and cure cancers and other serious diseases, thus making science and technology do more to benefit the people.
落实和完善创新激励政策。改革科技管理制度,绩效评价要加快从重过程向重结果转变。赋予创新团队和领军人才更大的人财物支配权和技术路线决策权。对承担重大科技攻关任务的科研人员,采取灵活的薪酬制度和奖励措施。探索赋予科研人员科技成果所有权和长期使用权。有悖于激励创新的陈规旧章,要抓紧修改废止;有碍于释放创新活力的繁文缛节,要下决心砍掉。
We will act on and improve policies that stimulate innovation. We will reform the science and technology management system, and speed up the shift in performance assessment from emphasis on processes to emphasis on outcomes. We will empower innovation teams and leaders by seeing that they have more human, financial, and material resources at their disposal and more power to make decisions related to technology roadmaps. For researchers working for major scientific and technological breakthroughs we will adopt flexible remuneration systems and reward schemes. We will explore ways to grant researchers ownership or permanent use rights over their scientific and technological outputs. All outdated rules and regulations that sap the inspiration for innovation will be modified or abolished without delay, and all red tape that strangles efforts to unlock innovation will be torn clean away.
促进大众创业、万众创新上水平。我国拥有世界上规模最大的人力人才资源,这是创新发展的最大“富矿”。要提供全方位创新创业服务,推进“双创”示范基地建设,鼓励大企业、高校和科研院所开放创新资源,发展平台经济、共享经济,形成线上线下结合、产学研用协同、大中小企业融合的创新创业格局,打造“双创”升级版。设立国家融资担保基金,支持优质创新型企业上市融资,将创业投资、天使投资税收优惠政策试点范围扩大到全国。深化人才发展体制改革,推动人力资源自由流动,支持企业提高技术工人待遇,加大高技能人才激励,鼓励海外留学人员回国创新创业,拓宽外国人才来华绿色通道。集众智汇众力,一定能跑出中国创新“加速度”。
We will see the nationwide business startup and innovation drive is taken to the next level. China is home to the biggest pool of human resources and talent in the world. In this we have the greatest gold mine there is for innovation and development. We will provide services that tick every box for inventors, innovators, and entrepreneurs, and establish more business startup and innovation demonstration centers. We will encourage large enterprises, universities, and research institutes to enable access to resources necessary for innovation, boost the platform economy and the sharing economy, and create an innovation and entrepreneurship landscape featuring online-offline combination, collaboration between enterprises, universities, research institutes, and end-users, and partnering between businesses of all sizes. With these efforts, we will create an upgraded edition of the national drive to promote business startups and innovation. We will establish a state financing guaranty fund, support leading innovative enterprises in going public, and extend nationwide the pilot preferential tax policies for venture capital investment and angel investment. We will deepen the reform of institutions for talent development, promote free flows of human resources, support enterprises in increasing pay packages for technical workers, and strengthen the incentives for highly skilled personnel. We will encourage overseas Chinese students to return to China after completing their studies to pursue business and other innovative ventures; we will create a fast track to attract more foreign talent to China. We have no doubt that by bringing together myriad intellects and pooling everyone’s energies, China will break into a sprint in innovation.
(三)深化基础性关键领域改革。以改革开放40周年为重要契机,推动改革取得新突破,不断解放和发展社会生产力。
3. Deepening reforms in fundamental and key areas
We will, drawing on the important momentum generated by the 40th anniversary of reform and opening-up, endeavor to make new breakthroughs in reform, and continue to unleash and develop productive forces.
推进国资国企改革。制定出资人监管权责清单。深化国有资本投资、运营公司等改革试点,赋予更多自主权。继续推进国有企业优化重组和央企股份制改革,加快形成有效制衡的法人治理结构和灵活高效的市场化经营机制,持续瘦身健体,提升主业核心竞争力,推动国有资本做强做优做大。稳妥推进混合所有制改革。落实向全国人大常委会报告国有资产管理情况的制度。国有企业要通过改革创新,走在高质量发展前列。
We will advance the reform of state capital and SOEs. Lists of investor rights and obligations regarding oversight and regulation will be formulated. We will deepen trial reforms in state capital investment and management companies, and grant them more decision-making power. We will continue moving forward with the improvement and restructuring of SOBs and the joint-stock reform of central government enterprises, and move faster to give shape to corporate governance structures with effective checks and balances and flexible and efficient market-based operating mechanisms. We will work consistently to make SOBs into leaner, better performers, increase the core competitiveness of their main business, and strengthen, expand, and increase returns on state capital. We will prudently move forward with reforms introducing mixed ownership in SOBs. The system for State Council reporting to the NPC Standing Committee on the management of state-owned assets will be implemented. Our SOBs should, through reform and innovation, become front-runners in pursuing high-quality development.
支持民营企业发展。坚持“两个毫不动摇”,坚持权利平等、机会平等、规则平等,全面落实支持非公有制经济发展的政策措施,认真解决民营企业反映的突出问题,坚决破除各种隐性壁垒。构建亲清新型政商关系,健全企业家参与涉企政策制定机制。激发和保护企业家精神,增强企业家信心,让民营企业在市场经济浪潮中尽显身手。
We will support the development of private enterprises. There will be no irresolution about consolidating and developing the public sector and no irresolution about encouraging, supporting, and guiding non-public sector development; we will uphold the principle of equal rights, equal opportunities, and fair rules. We will implement fully all policies and measures in support of non-public sector development, earnestly address salient problems that concern private companies, and take firm action to remove hidden barriers. We will build a new type of cordial and clean relationship between government and business, and improve mechanisms for entrepreneurs to participate in enterprise-related policy formulation. We will encourage and protect entrepreneurship, boost entrepreneur confidence, and enable private enterprises to reach their maximum potential in the market economy.
完善产权制度和要素市场化配置机制。产权制度是社会主义市场经济的基石。要以保护产权、维护契约、统一市场、平等交换、公平竞争为基本导向,完善相关法律法规。对各种侵权行为要依法严肃处理,对产权纠纷案件要依法甄别纠正。强化知识产权保护,实行侵权惩罚性赔偿制度。加快技术、土地等要素价格市场化改革,深化资源类产品和公共服务价格改革,打破行政垄断,防止市场垄断。要用有力的产权保护、顺畅的要素流动,让市场活力和社会创造力竞相迸发。
We will improve property rights systems and mechanisms for market-based allocation of the factors of production. The property rights system is the cornerstone of the socialist market economy. We will improve the relevant laws and regulations to see that property rights are protected, contracts are honored, the market is unified, exchanges are equal, and competition is fair. All types of infringements on property rights will be rigorously dealt with in accordance with law, and all property rights dispute cases will be reviewed and settled in accordance with law. We will strengthen the protection of intellectual property, and enforce a punitive compensation system for intellectual property rights infringements. We will speed up reforms making the pricing of factors of production like technology and land increasingly market-based, deepen reform of the pricing mechanisms for resource products and public services, break government monopolies, and protect against market monopolies. We will see that strong protection of property rights and fluid flows of the factors of production enable a great increase in market dynamism and public creativity.
深化财税体制改革。推进中央与地方财政事权和支出责任划分改革,抓紧制定收入划分改革方案,完善转移支付制度。健全地方税体系,稳妥推进房地产税立法。改革个人所得税。全面实施绩效管理,使财政资金花得其所、用得安全。
We will continue structural fiscal and tax reforms. We will advance reforms to clearly define the respective fiscal powers and expenditure responsibilities of central and local government, move quickly on formulating a plan for reforming the division of revenues, and improve the transfer payments system. We will improve local tax systems, and prudently advance legislation on real estate tax. We will reform the personal income tax. We will implement performance-based management across the board, and ensure the proper and secure use of fiscal budgets.
加快金融体制改革。改革完善金融服务体系,支持金融机构扩展普惠金融业务,规范发展地方性中小金融机构,着力解决小微企业融资难、融资贵问题。深化多层次资本市场改革,推动债券、期货市场发展。拓展保险市场的风险保障功能。深化利率汇率市场化改革,保持人民币汇率在合理均衡水平上的基本稳定。
We will speed up reforms in the financial sector. We will reform and improve the financial service system, support financial institutions in expanding their business in inclusive finance, promote the well regulated development of small and medium local financial institutions, and focus on solving the problem of small and micro enterprises finding it tough and expensive to access financing. We will deepen the reform to develop a multi-tiered capital market, and promote the development of the bonds and futures markets. We will expand the insurance market’s role in protecting against risk. We will deepen reforms to make the interest rate and exchange rate more market-based, and see that the RMB exchange rate remains generally stable at an adaptive and equilibrium level.
推进社会体制改革。深化养老保险制度改革,建立企业职工基本养老保险基金中央调剂制度。深化公立医院综合改革,协调推进医疗价格、人事薪酬、药品流通、医保支付改革,提高医疗卫生服务质量,下大力气解决群众看病就医难题。深入推进教育、文化、体育等改革,充分释放社会领域巨大发展潜力。
We will advance institutional social reforms. We will deepen reform of the old-age pension system, and establish a central system for enterprise employees’ basic old-age pension funds to be used inter-provincially. We will deepen comprehensive public hospital reform and make coordinated moves to reform healthcare pricing, staffing and remuneration, medicine distribution, and health insurance payment models. We will improve the quality of healthcare services and work hard to resolve the difficulties people face in accessing medical care. We will continue reforms in education, culture, and sports, fully unlocking society’s vast potential for development.
健全生态文明体制。改革完善生态环境管理制度,加强自然生态空间用途管制,推行生态环境损害赔偿制度,完善生态补偿机制,以更加有效的制度保护生态环境。
We will build a more robust system for developing an ecological civilization. We will reform and improve the system for ecological and environmental regulation, strengthen regulation over the use of natural ecological spaces, roll out a system of compensation for ecological and environmental damage, and improve the compensation mechanisms for ecological conservation, using more effective institutions to achieve ecological and environmental protection.

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