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2018年政府工作报告(3)

推进供给侧结构性改革,必须破除要素市场化配置障碍,降低制度性交易成本。针对长期存在的重审批、轻监管、弱服务问题,我们持续深化“放管服”改革,加快转变政府职能,减少微观管理、直接干预,注重加强宏观调控、市场监管和公共服务。五年来,国务院部门行政审批事项削减44%,非行政许可审批彻底终结,中央政府层面核准的企业投资项目减少90%,行政审批中介服务事项压减74%,职业资格许可和认定大幅减少。中央政府定价项目缩减80%,地方政府定价项目缩减50%以上。全面改革工商登记、注册资本等商事制度,企业开办时间缩短三分之一以上。创新和加强事中事后监管,实行“双随机、一公开”,随机抽取检查人员和检查对象、及时公开查处结果,提高了监管效能和公正性。推行“互联网+政务服务”,实施一站式服务等举措。营商环境持续改善,市场活力明显增强,群众办事更加便利。
Advancing supply-side structural reform demands removing barriers to market based allocation of the factors of production and reducing government-imposed transaction costs. To address the longstanding issues of excessive emphasis on approval procedures, insufficient attention to regulatory processes, and a failure to provide strong services, we have been consistently deepening reforms to streamline administration, delegate powers, improve regulation, and strengthen services. We have sped up efforts to transform government functions, reduced micromanagement and direct intervention, and done more to improve macro regulation, market regulation, and public services. Over the past five years, the number of items subject to approval by State Council offices and departments has been slashed by 44 percent, the practice of non-administrative approval has been completely put to a stop, the number of business investment items subject to central government approval has been cut by 90 percent, intermediary services needed for obtaining government approval have been cut by 74 percent, and the requirements for professional qualification approval and accreditation have been significantly reduced. The number of items for which central government sets the prices has been cut back by 80 percent, and local government-priced items have been cut down by over 50 percent. Comprehensive reforms have swept the business system, including business and capital registration, reducing the time it takes to start a business by over a third. We have developed new and better ways of conducting compliance oversight, and introduced a new model of oversight combining randomly selected inspectors who inspect randomly selected entities and the prompt release of results. These efforts have made regulation more effective and impartial. We have rolled out the Internet Plus Government Services model and adopted measures such as the one-stop service model. Thanks to the above reforms, the business environment has consistently improved, the market is more energized, and people can access government services more easily.
(三)坚持创新引领发展,着力激发社会创造力,整体创新能力和效率显著提高。实施创新驱动发展战略,优化创新生态,形成多主体协同、全方位推进的创新局面。扩大科研机构和高校科研自主权,改进科研项目和经费管理,深化科技成果权益管理改革。支持北京、上海建设科技创新中心,新设14个国家自主创新示范区,带动形成一批区域创新高地。以企业为主体加强技术创新体系建设,涌现一批具有国际竞争力的创新型企业和新型研发机构。深入开展大众创业、万众创新,实施普惠性支持政策,完善孵化体系。各类市场主体达到9800多万户,五年增加70%以上。国内有效发明专利拥有量增加两倍,技术交易额翻了一番。我国科技创新由跟跑为主转向更多领域并跑、领跑,成为全球瞩目的创新创业热土。
Third, with a commitment to innovation-driven development, and a focus on unlocking public creativity, we have achieved a remarkable improvement in our general capacity for making innovations and for seeing that innovation delivers. We have put into action the innovation-driven development strategy and worked to build a better ecosystem for innovation, giving shape to innovation involving multiple actors making across-the-board advances. Research institutes and universities now have greater say over their research; research projects and funding are better managed, and the way of managing rights and interests relating to scientific and technological advances has undergone reform. We have supported Beijing and Shanghai in building themselves into centers for scientific and technological innovation, and set up 14 new national innovation demonstration zones, thus creating a number of regional innovation hubs. With enterprises as the main actors, we have boosted the development of a system for technological innovation. China has seen the emergence of a number of world-class innovative enterprises and new-type R&D institutions. We have launched and taken bold moves in the nationwide business startup and innovation initiative, adopted support policies designed to benefit all entrepreneurs and innovators, and improved the incubation system. China’s market entities, all types included, now total over 98 million, an increase of more than 70 percent over the past five years. The number of in-force Chinese invention patents issued in China has tripled, and the volume of technology transactions has doubled. In the global race of scientific and technological innovation, China has shifted place, from following others to keeping pace and even leading the pack in more and more areas. Our country has become a globally recognized fertile ground for innovation and business ventures.
(四)坚持全面深化改革,着力破除体制机制弊端,发展动力不断增强。国企国资改革扎实推进,公司制改革基本完成,兼并重组、压减层级、提质增效取得积极进展。国有企业效益明显好转,去年利润增长23.5%。深化能源、铁路、盐业等领域改革。放宽非公有制经济市场准入。建立不动产统一登记制度。完善产权保护制度。财税改革取得重大进展,全面推行财政预决算公开,构建以共享税为主的中央和地方收入分配格局,启动中央与地方财政事权和支出责任划分改革,中央对地方一般性转移支付规模大幅增加、专项转移支付项目减少三分之二。基本放开利率管制,建立存款保险制度,推动大中型商业银行设立普惠金融事业部,深化政策性、开发性金融机构改革,强化金融监管协调机制。完善城乡义务教育均衡发展促进机制,改革考试招生制度。建立统一的城乡居民基本养老、医疗保险制度,实现机关事业单位和企业养老保险制度并轨。出台划转部分国有资本充实社保基金方案。实施医疗、医保、医药联动改革,全面推开公立医院综合改革,取消长期实行的药品加成政策,药品医疗器械审批制度改革取得突破。推进农村承包地“三权”分置改革、确权面积超过80%,改革重要农产品收储制度。完善主体功能区制度,建立生态文明绩效考评和责任追究制度,推行河长制、湖长制,开展省级以下环保机构垂直管理制度改革试点。各领域改革的深化,推动了经济社会持续健康发展。
Fourth, with a commitment to deepening reform across the board, we have taken major steps to remove institutional barriers, thus steadily boosting the driving forces powering development. Solid progress has been made in the reform of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and state assets; the reform to convert SOEs into standard companies has now basically been completed; and efforts to merge and restructure, reduce the organizational levels in, and improve the quality and efficiency of SOEs have made good progress. The performance of SOEs has been much improved, with profits last year growing by 23.5 percent. We have deepened reform in sectors like energy, rail, and the salt industry. Market access to the non-public sector has been expanded. An integrated registration system for immovable property has been put in place, and the property rights protection system has been improved. Fiscal and tax reforms have made major progress. We have introduced the requirement nationwide for government budgets and final accounts to be released to the public, developed a system based mainly on tax sharing for dividing revenue between central and local government, launched the reform to define the respective financial powers and expenditure responsibilities of central and local government, and significantly scaled up general transfer payments from central to local government, while also cutting by two thirds the number of items for which special purpose transfer payments are made. We have largely lifted controls on interest rates, established a deposit insurance system, encouraged large and medium commercial banks to set up inclusive finance divisions, deepened the reform of policy-backed and development financial institutions, and strengthened the mechanisms for coordinating financial regulation. We have improved the mechanisms for promoting more balanced development of urban and rural compulsory education, and reformed the examination and enrollment systems. We have established unified basic pension and health insurance schemes for rural and non-working urban residents, and brought government office and public institution pension schemes into line with enterprise schemes. We have unveiled a plan for appropriating a share of state capital to replenish social security funds. We have carried out coordinated medical service, medical insurance, and pharmaceutical reforms. We have introduced a comprehensive reform in all public hospitals, rescinded the policy, long in effect, of allowing hospitals to profit from higher priced medicine, and made breakthroughs in the reform of approval systems for medicine and medical devices. We have pursued reform to separate rural land ownership rights, contract rights, and use rights, and already seen that over 80 percent of contracted rural land covered by this reform. We have reformed the system for purchasing and stockpiling important agricultural products. We have improved the functional zoning system, established performance evaluation and accountability systems for ecological conservation, and instituted the river chief and lake chief systems. We have piloted a system placing government environmental offices below the provincial level directly under the supervision of provincial-level environmental offices. The deepening of reform in each and every field has given a boost to sustained, healthy economic and social development.
(五)坚持对外开放的基本国策,着力实现合作共赢,开放型经济水平显著提升。倡导和推动共建“一带一路”,发起创办亚投行,设立丝路基金,一批重大互联互通、经贸合作项目落地。设立上海等11个自贸试验区,一批改革试点成果向全国推广。改革出口退税负担机制、退税增量全部由中央财政负担,设立13个跨境电商综合试验区,国际贸易“单一窗口”覆盖全国,货物通关时间平均缩短一半以上,进出口实现回稳向好。外商投资由审批制转向负面清单管理,限制性措施削减三分之二。外商投资结构优化,高技术产业占比提高一倍。加大引智力度,来华工作的外国专家增加40%。引导对外投资健康发展。推进国际产能合作,高铁、核电等装备走向世界。新签和升级8个自由贸易协定。沪港通、深港通、债券通相继启动,人民币加入国际货币基金组织特别提款权货币篮子,人民币国际化迈出重要步伐。中国开放的扩大,有力促进了自身发展,给世界带来重大机遇。
Fifth, with a commitment to China’s fundamental policy of opening-up, we have focused on promoting win-win cooperation, and significantly improved the performance of our country’s open economy. We have launched and worked with other countries in the Belt and Road Initiative. We initiated the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, set up the Silk Road Fund, and launched a number of major connectivity and economic and trade cooperation initiatives. Beginning with the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone, we have established 11 pilot free trade zones. A number of successful outcomes from pilot reforms are now being applied nationwide. We have reformed the cost-sharing mechanism for export tax rebates, and the central government now pays the full sum of increases in export tax rebates. We have set up 13 comprehensive experimental zones for cross-border e-commerce. Single-window document processing for international trade has been applied nationwide, cutting the average time for customs clearance by over half. Imports and exports have rebounded and steadily grown. For foreign investment, we have replaced the approval system with a negative list model, and have cut restrictions by two thirds. The composition of foreign investment has improved, with investment in high-tech industries doubling. We have intensified efforts to attract talent, and the number of foreign experts working in China has grown by 40 percent. We have guided the healthy development of outbound investment. We have moved forward with international cooperation on production capacity; high-speed rail, nuclear power, and other types of Chinese equipment have entered international markets. We have signed or upgraded eight free trade agreements. We have launched the Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect, the Shenzhen-Hong Kong Stock Connect, and the Bond Connect. The RMB was included in the IMF’s Special Drawing Rights basket, representing a major step forward in its internationalization. China has opened its doors wider to the world. This opening has played a powerful role in our own development, and it presents important opportunities for the rest of the world.

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